The first component is the Elements which are four in number-fire which is
hot & dry, air which is hot & wet, water which is cold & wet, and earth
which is cold & dry.
The second
component is the Temperaments which are nine in number.
The first is an evenly balanced temperament. The second is an unevenly
temperament, which may be unmixed, being then hot, cold,
damp, or dry. Or it may be an unevenly balanced but mixed temperament,
being hot & dry or hot & wet or cold & dry or cold & wet.
The most evenly balanced of all animal temperaments is the temperament of Man. The most evenly balanced of all the temperaments of
Mankind is the
temperament of a Believer. The most evenly balanced of
temperaments of Believers are the temperaments of the Prophets.
The most evenly balanced of the temperaments of all the prophets are the
temperaments of the Messengers of God. And the most evenly balanced
temperaments of all the messengers of God is the temperament of those
endowed with a resolution to obey God. And the most evenly balanced
of those so endowed is the
temperament of Our Lord Mahomed (upon
may fall the blessing of God and peace).
I maintain that the reason why Mahomed was the most evenly balanced
in character from the point of view of temperament according to the rules
of Medicine is because the nature of his character was subservient to the
temperament of his body and the more perfectly balanced is the temperament of the body, the better is the nature of the character. And He
the all-Knowing, glorious and Almighty is He, has born witness that
the Prophet was of an excellent character.
Said ‘Ayesha: The character of the Prophet is the Quran. Hence it
needs must be that his
temperament be the most balanced of temperaments. And if his
temperament were the most balanced of temperaments,
then his character must have been the best of characters.
Said al-Bukhari in his book called Al-Sahih or The Genuine: The Prophet was the best of men in appearance and the best of men in character.
Said Anas: I served the Prophet for ten years. He never once upbraided
me. He never asked me why I had done anything that I had done nor
asked me why I had left undone anything that I had left undone.Said Ibn ‘Umr: The Prophet was never indecent nor ever talked indecently. He used to say: The best of you are those who are finest in character.
Al-Bukharl relates that a Bedouin once pulled a cloak from the shoulders
of the Prophet with so violent a pull that he hurt his shoulder. Then he
said: O Mohamed, make me a present of the money of God which you
possess. The Prophet turned to him, laughed, and ordered a gift to be made
to him.
Verily the Prophet is good and chaste, the best of men in features and
in character. May God pray upon him and upon his followers a prayer
which will never end and never finish.
The Merciful One never created one like to Mahomed.
And to
my knowledge never will create one.
He is the sun of mid-day and the moon of mid-month.
He is the emrald
among jewels.
His place is one never given to other messengers.
His rank is one never given to other men.
Folio 5 Now, the temperament of youth is evenly balanced. The temperament
of childhood inclines to damp and that of maturity and old age to cold.
The most evenly balanced of the organs is the skin of the tip of the index
finger and after this the tips of the other fingers. The hottest of the organs
is the heart and after that the liver and the flesh. The coldest of all are the
bones and the
nerves, the spinal cord and the brain. The driest of all is
bone. The dampest of all is fat.
among the seven compoments of the Constitution come the Four
Humours. Of these the most excellent is Blood, which is damp & hot. Its
property is to feed the body. Normal blood is sweet and without smell.
Next comes Phlegm and this is wet & cold. Its property is to convert
blood whenever the body lacks food, to keep the organs damp and to
prevent drying up due to movement. Normal phlegm is phlegm that is
near to changing into blood. Abnormal phlegm is salt or somewhat warm
or sour. It tends to be ripe and insipid. It is unmixed cold.
The third humour is Bile, which is hot & dry, It is stored in the Gall
Bladder. It renders the blood subtle and helps it to pass through the
very narrow channels. Part of it is carried to the bowels and produces the
characteristic colour of the faeces. Normal bile is slightly red. Abnormal
may be coloured like the yoke of an egg or coloured like leeks or
verdigris or be inflamed. Rusty bile is more powerful than leek-coloured
and it is a warning of Death. Bile is sometimes known as Yellow Bile.
Finally, there is Spleen. This is cold & dry. It thickens the blood and
feeds the spleen and the bones. Part of it passes to the mouth of the
stomach and sets
up a desire for food and causes an acidity. Normal spleen
forms the dregs of the blood. Abnormal spleen is described as inflamed,
Folio 6 that is, impure. Spleen is sometimes called Black Bile.
The fourth component of the Constitutionhe sixth is the Faculties and they are three in number-the Natural,
the Vital, and the Psychic.
And the seventh and last
component is the Functions and they are
two-the Function of Attraction and the Function of Repulsion