How to drinkNever drink water immediately after taking food nor when the stomach is quite empty. He who drinks water drawn from a well, his food will be well digested. Abstain from very cold water, for it is harmful to the
organs of respiration, especially after a hot meal or after sweet food or after ahot bath or after sexual intercourse. Do not mix well water with river water. Never toss down water with a single gulp, for a disease called al-Kabar is caused by such swallowing. Al-Bayhaqi explains that al-Kabar means 
‘pain in the liver’ and ‘a single gulp’ means ‘swallowing by great gulps’. Anas reports the tradition that the Prophet used to take three breaths with Folio I6 each drink and used to say that it thereby became more satisfying, more health-giving, and more thirst-quenching. Anas added: I also used to take three breaths in a similar manner. Muslim extracted this saying. Abu Nu’aim too reports the tradition that whenever the Prophet took a drink (Sharab), he would pause three times for breath, calling upon the 
name of God when he began and praising Him during the pause. The word ‘Sharab’ here means water, but in the terminology of physicians it means ‘an intoxicant’. According to al-Tirmidhi the Prophet used to use the tooth-pick side- ways and would drink by sucking. The meaning of the phrase ‘taking a breath’ in the Traditions is drinking with three pauses for breath andremoving the mout from the vessel. The prohibition of the Prophet against breathing into the vessel means that it is forbidden to drink and to breathe into a vessel without removing the vessel from the mouth. For often some saliva may fall into the vessel and the vessel will be contaminated if this often happens. There is thus 
no contradiction between his order and his prohibition. Verily to ration out one’s water is of very great benefit. This is because some need may call for the taking of much water because of a violent 
thirst and a man cannot be sure of repeated opportunities for drinking and for reducing his heat. Rationing of one’s water makes this certain. 
The benefit of pausing for breath while drinking is as follows. Respira- tion stops at the moment of swallowing. But the need is urgent both for water and for breath. So, if a man takes a breath and inhales a drop of water into the respiratory passage, this will become for him a cause of suffocation or choking. So, if a man pauses in his drinking to breathe, he will be safe from this. But as for the statement about the three breaths, verily there is no need Folio I7 for more than this. But it is expedient for everyone while drinking to take three breaths, as did the Prophet. But with regard to the statement that it is more satisfying, most certainly it is more satisfying for the thirst than drinking all in one draught. Asfor it being more health-giving, this is because if a man drink for that reason, he will be cured of his disease or he 
will be cured more quickly if he recovers. As for being more thirst- quenching or more subtle, this is because it renders digestion easy and creates an appetite. These are minute points of wisdom and theoretical truths the telling of which is neglected except by the meticulous. The wise of olden times and of later times have failed to know them. And may God be merciful and give peace to this Prophet, the Physician, the Pure One. May His mercy endure for ever and be without end. Anas said: The Prophet forbade drinking while .standing up. But al-Khattabi said: This prohibition refers to the quenching of thirst and to setting a limit thereto. Al-Khattabi allowed a drink to be taken standing, as also did ‘Umar, cUthman, ‘Ali, and a large number of theologians. Others refused. The Prophet himself drank standing up.The Prophet forbade the closing of water skins. This means that he forbade the custom of the kinking of the neck of the water-skin and thedrinking from the cup thus formed. This is reported by al-Bukhari. Said 
Bin ‘Abbas: The Prophet forbade drinking from the mouth of the water- skin. This is related by al-Bukhari. The reason for this prohibition is because the drinker will not know what will enter his mouth. For these 
may be in the water a leech or something else which will stick in his throat. Such things have been related 58 CYRIL ELGOOD Ibn Maja says on the authority of Bin ‘Abbas the Prophet possessed Folio I8 a cup and a flask and used to drink out of these. Said al-Muwaqqaf ‘Abd-ul-Latif: Glass is the best for a drinking vessel. 
The Indians preferred it. Their kings used to drink from glass and prefer- red it to silver and rubies, for it is less likely to carry dirt and becomes new again when washed. Dirty water or any dirty drink can be perceived through it. And it is difficult for a cup-bearer to insert poison into it. 
These are its most excellent properties for which the kings of India 
chose i